文章摘要
王瑞斌;李明;苏笑芳;魏益民.荞麦挤压膨化产品的理化特性研究[J].中国食品学报,2019,19(9):83-92
荞麦挤压膨化产品的理化特性研究
Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Buckwheat Puffing Products
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 荞麦粉  挤压膨化  淀粉改性  理化特性  淀粉分子结构
英文关键词: buckwheat flour  extrusion expansion  starch modification  physic-chemical properties  starch molecular structure
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-03)
作者单位
王瑞斌;李明;苏笑芳;魏益民 中国农业科学院农产品加工研究所/农业农村部农产品加工重点实验室北京100193 
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中文摘要:
      为明确操作参数对荞麦挤压膨化产品特性的影响,确定产品理化特性间的关系,从淀粉分子结构角度解释产品理化特性的变化,本文以荞麦粉为原料,利用德国布拉本德DSE-25型双螺杆挤压机,通过响应面试验设计,系统研究物料含水量、加工温度、螺杆转速及其交互作用对膨化产品截面膨化率、水溶性指数、吸水性指数、色泽等理化特性以及挤压膨化产品淀粉分子结构的影响。结果表明,加工温度、螺杆转速是影响截面膨化率、水溶性指数、吸水性指数的重要因素;水分含量、螺杆转速是影响黏度、淀粉平均分子半径、重均分子质量的重要因素。淀粉平均分子半径与水溶性指数、色差呈显著负相关,与吸水性指数、黏度呈显著正相关。截面膨化率与其它产品特性无显著相关性。剪切效应加剧,淀粉降解程度加大,平均分子半径减小。在水分含量较高、温度较低、螺杆转速较小条件下,单位机械能耗较小,荞麦挤压膨化物中淀粉平均分子半径较大,吸水性指数和黏度较大,水溶性指数和色差较小。通过挤压处理可改善荞麦淀粉的水溶性、吸水性、黏度等理化特性。
英文摘要:
      In order to clarify the influence of processing parameters on the characteristics of buckwheat extrudates, to understand the relationship among different characteristics of buckwheat extrudates, and to explain the characteristics from the molecular structure level, buckwheat flour was extruded under different water content, processing temperature and screw speed by DSE-25 Twin-screw Extruder using response surface design. The physicochemical properties of buckwheat extrudates such as expansion index, water absorption index, water solubility index, and visocsity were studied systematically. The results showed that processing temperature and screw speed were important factors influencing the sectional expansion index, water solubility index and water absorption index. Moisture content and screw speed were important for the viscosity, the average molecular radius and the average molecular weight. There was a significant negative correlation between the specific mechanical energy and the starch average molecular size. Starch average molecular size was negatively correlated with water solubility index and total color difference, and positively correlated with water absorption index and viscosity. Water solubility index could be used to estimate water absorption index, and average molecular radius of the starch can be used to estimate weight average molecular weight. Starch molecules were more degraded when shear is more severe, with reduced average molecular size. With higher water content, lower barrel temperature, and smaller screw speed, special mechanical energy would be smaller, starch average molecular size would be larger, leading to higher water absorption index, viscosity, and lower water solubility index and color difference. Extrusion can be used to alter the starch structure, and the physicochemical properties such as water solubility, water absorption, viscosity can be changed accordingly.
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