文章摘要
方冠宇;姜佳丽;蒋予箭.多菌混合发酵对酱油的风味物质形成及感官指标的影响[J].中国食品学报,2019,19(9):154-163
多菌混合发酵对酱油的风味物质形成及感官指标的影响
The Influence of Multi-strain Fermentation on the Flavor Substances and Sensory Evaluation in Soy Sauce
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 酱油  多菌种发酵  曲线拟合  感官评定
英文关键词: soy sauce  multi-strain fermentation  fitting curve  sensory evaluation
基金项目:浙江省公益技术应用研究计划项目(LGG19C200001)
作者单位
方冠宇;姜佳丽;蒋予箭 浙江工商大学食品与生物工程学院杭州310018 
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中文摘要:
      为探究多菌混合制曲发酵对酿造酱油风味物质和感官的影响,分4组完成酱油发酵试验:Ⅰ组(用AS3.042米曲霉制曲发酵)、Ⅱ组(米曲霉+AS2.180鲁氏酵母)、Ⅲ组(米曲霉+鲁氏酵母+沪酿2.14球拟酵母)、Ⅳ组(米曲霉+鲁氏酵母+球拟酵母+沪酿1.08乳酸菌),发酵90 d后进行比较。结果表明:(1)4组的氨态氮、还原糖、pH等理化指标基本相似,第Ⅳ组的氨基酸态氮的值(1.378 g/100 mL)略高于其它3组;(2)鲁氏酵母促进了酱油中高级醇及芳香杂醇的生成,球拟酵母促进了酱油中4-EG、4-VG、HEMF的生成,使酱油具有特殊的香气,乳酸菌发酵赋予了酱油爽适的口感,各组风味物质含量和种类差异非常显著;(3)对特征性风味物质含量与发酵时间进行曲线拟合,可得到数学关系式(如y=-230.83+21.7 t-0.136 t2+1.27×10-4 t3,第Ⅰ组),从关系式计算出特征性风味物质最大值分别为:648.96(Ⅰ组:发酵周期92 d),852.90(Ⅱ组:发酵周期98 d),982.51(Ⅲ组:发酵周期99 d),1 897.55 μg/L(Ⅳ组:发酵周期102 d)。多菌种发酵的酱油获得较高的特征性风味物质含量。
英文摘要:
      In order to investigate the influence of multi-strain fermentation to the flavor substances and sensory evaluation of soy sauce, there are four groups of experimental were designed: group Ⅰ (fermentation only with Aspergillus oryzae 3.042), group Ⅱ (Aspergillus oryzae 3.042+Saccharomyces rouxii AS2.180), group Ⅲ (Aspergillus oryzae 3.042+Saccharomyces rouxii AS2.180+Torulopsis bombicola huniang2.14), group Ⅳ(Aspergillus oryzae3.042+Saccharomyces rouxii AS2.180+Torulopsis bombicola huniang2.14 +Lactobacillus huniang1.08), and compared of the 4 groups after fermented 90 d. The result showed that: (1)The physicochemical indexes of ammoniacal nitrogen, reducing sugar and pH is similar, but the content of ammoniacal nitrogen in group Ⅳ is slightly higher than the other 3 groups. (2) Saccharomyces rouxii AS2.180 promotes the formation of higher alcohols and aromatic heterocyclic compounds. Torulopsis bombicola huniang2.14 promotes the formation of 4-EG and 4-VG that makes soy sauce had a special aroma. Lactobacillus huniang 1.08 makes the soy sauce tastes refreshing. And the difference of the types and content of the flavor substances is very significant of the 4 groups (P<0.01). (3) Using suitable functions to describe the relationship between characteristic flavor substance content and the time of fermentation can get a mathematical relationship (such as: group Ⅰ y = -230.83+21.7 t - 0.136 t2 + 1.27×10-4 t3), and can figure out the largest content of characteristic flavor substance of the 4 groups is: 648.96 μg/L (group Ⅰ: fermentation period is 92 d), 852.90 μg/L (group Ⅱ: fermentation period is 98 d), 982.51 μg/L(group Ⅲ: fermentation period is 99 d), 1 897.55 μg/L (group Ⅳ: fermentation period is 102 d) respectively. Multiple fungus fermentation can increase the characteristic flavor substance content in soy sauce.
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