文章摘要
刘文营;李开雄;王守伟;李享;成晓瑜;乔晓玲;.新疆哈萨克熏马肠煮制过程中汤汁中游离氨基酸和挥发性物质分析[J].中国食品学报,2020,20(4):270-280
新疆哈萨克熏马肠煮制过程中汤汁中游离氨基酸和挥发性物质分析
Analysis of Free Amino Acids and Volatile Flavor Substances during Cooking of Smoked Horse Sausage Prepared in Kazakh Region of Xinjiang
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 熏马肠  游离氨基酸  主体风味  挥发性风味物质  味觉特征
英文关键词: smoked horse sausage  free amino acids  main flavor  volatile flavor compounds  taste characteristics
基金项目:国家重点研发计划专项(2016YFD0401503); 农业农村部典型农产品品质指标体系构建与指标筛选验证项目(GJFP2019043); 北京市自然科学基金项目(6192009)
作者单位
刘文营;李开雄;王守伟;李享;成晓瑜;乔晓玲; 中国肉类食品综合研究中心国家肉类加工工程技术研究中心北京食品科学研究院
石河子大学食品学院
 
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中文摘要:
      熏马肠是我国哈萨克族居民加工的一种传统肉制品,煮制成熟的熏马肠和汤汁都深受人们的喜爱,为了量化熏马肠煮制过程中滋味和挥发性风味物质的释放,对不同煮制时间汤汁中的游离氨基酸、主体风味特征、味觉特性和挥发性风味物质组分进行分析。结果显示,汤汁中的游离氨基酸总量呈增加趋势,煮制105 min和120 min时游离氨基酸总量显著高于煮制初期(P<0.05),而不同煮制时间的呈鲜、呈甜和呈苦味氨基酸百分比差异不显著(P>0.05)。汤汁咸味值、鲜味值、丰富度、苦味值、苦味回味值均随时间的延长呈增加趋势,涩味值和涩味回味值的变化规律不明显。不同煮制时间汤汁的挥发性成分具有明显差异,挥发性物质总量呈先增加后降低的趋势。汤汁主体风味成分在PC1和PC2上的方差贡献率为97.06%,风味特征明显,且在LD1和LD2上的方差贡献率为85.27%,通过风味主体成分可以区分不同的样品。煮制105 min时游离氨基酸含量较高,主体风味得到一定保持,涩味值未显著升高,较适宜用作熏马肠的熟制。
英文摘要:
      The smoked horse sausage is a traditional meat product which is popular among Kazakhs, and both the cooked smoked horse sausage and mature liquid are well welcomed. In order to quantify the taste and flavor change of the smoked horse sausage during cooking, the main flavor, free amino acids, taste characteristics and volatile flavor substances of samples sampled at different cooking time were analyzed. Results showed that the total amount of free amino acids in soup presented an increasing trend, the total free amino acids of products cooked for 105 min and 120 min were significantly higher than that of the initial sample (P<0.05). The influences of cooking time on the proportion of umami taste amino acid, sweet taste amino acid and bitter taste amino acid was not significant (P>0.05). The saltiness value, umami value, richness, bitterness value and bitter aftertaste value of the soup showed an increasing trend with the prolongation of cooking time, while the astringency value and the astringency aftertaste value showed no obvious change. The volatile components of the soup were significantly different in different cooking times, the total amount of volatile substances showed a trend of decreasing after increasing. The variance contribution rate of the main flavor components of the soup on PC1 and PC2 was 97.06%, each product had its own flavor characteristics, and the variance contribution rate on LD1 and LD2 was 85.27%, which mean the different samples could be effectively distinguished by principal component analysis. The content of free amino acid was higher when cooked for 105 min, the main flavor was maintained to some extent, and the degree of astringency was not significantly increased. Suitable processing parameter was obtained after cooking for 105 min, the results provide reference for cooking, processing and consumption of smoked horse sausage, as well as for further research on the flavor and taste of smoked horse sausage.
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