(华中农业大学食品科技学院 环境食品学教育部重点实验室 武汉 430000)
(Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology， Ministry of Education， College of Food Science and Technology， Huazhong Agricultural University， Wuhan 430000)
为探究鸡汤、鸡肉和肉汤复配物的免疫调节特性，以两岁龄雌性固始鸡为原料，采用高压炖煮结合喷雾干燥和冷冻干燥工艺分别制备鸡汤粉和鸡肉粉，并测定其氨基酸组成；腹腔注射环磷酰胺建立免疫抑制小鼠模型，分别灌胃鸡汤、鸡肉和肉汤复配物，测定小鼠的体质量、免疫器官指数、细胞因子和免疫球蛋白含量，并进行脾脏免疫组织化学分析，评价小鼠脾脏和回肠的组织变化，从细胞免疫和体液免疫2个方面分析鸡汤、鸡肉和肉汤复配物对上述指标的影响。结果表明，鸡汤、鸡肉和肉汤复配物均可以提高免疫抑制小鼠的免疫能力。其中鸡汤显著提高免疫抑制小鼠血液中血红蛋白含量【(133.33±4.07)g/L】、血清IgA含量【(341.99±17.89)pg/mL】和血清IgG含量【(1 988.75±96.56)pg/mL】。鸡肉较鸡汤显著提高脾脏细胞表面CD4+表达。肉汤复配物能够提高胸腺指数【(1.62±0.47)mg/g】、改善脾脏和回肠组织损伤，刺激干扰素-γ分泌【(1 355.83±71.73)pg/mL】，且恢复Th1/Th2平衡。结论:鸡汤、鸡肉和肉汤复配物都对免疫抑制小鼠的免疫调节功能有一定的改善作用，鸡汤的综合作用效果优于鸡肉。
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of chicken soup， chicken meat and their complexes. Gushi chicken(two year) was used as raw material to prepare chicken soup powder and chicken meat powder， respectively， and their amino acid compositions were determined. Chicken soup， chicken meat and their complexes were given to immunosuppressive mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. The body weight， immune organ index， cytokines， immunoglobulins， spleen immunohistochemical analysis and histopathology of the mice were measured. The effects of immune chicken meat and their complexes on the above indicators were analyzed from the aspects of cellular immunity and humoral immunity. The results showed that chicken soup， chicken meat and their complexes improved the immune capacity of immunosuppressed mice. Chicken soup significantly increased the blood hemoglobin content [(133.33±4.07) g/L]， serum IgA content [(341.99±17.89) pg/mL] and serum IgG content [(1 988.75±96.56) pg/mL] of immunosuppressed mice. Compared with chicken soup， the expression of CD4+ on spleen cell surface was significantly increased. Their complex could increase thymus index [(1.62±0.47) mg/g]， improve spleen and ileum tissue injury， stimulate interferon-γ secretion [(1 355.83±71.73) pg/mL]， and restore Th1/Th2 balance. Conclusion: This study showed that chicken soup， chicken meat and their complexes had an improvement on the immune regulation function of immunosuppressed mice， and the comprehensive effect of chicken soup was better than that of chicken.