(1.中国农业大学食品科学与营养工程学院 国家果蔬加工工程技术研究中心农业农村部果蔬加工重点实验室 北京 100083;2.新疆农业科学院农产品贮藏加工研究所 新疆主要农副产品精深加工工程技术研究中心 乌鲁木齐 830091)
(1.College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering， China Agricultural University， National Engineering Research Centre for Fruit and Vegetable Processing， Key Laboratory of Fruit and Vegetable Processing， Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs， Beijing 100083;2.Institute of Agro-products Storage and Processing， Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences， Xinjiang Deeper Processing and Engineering Technology Research Centre of Main Byproducts， Urumqi 830091)
新疆辣椒戈壁滩自然干制过程包括挂果干燥、采收、摊晒、拢堆、发汗、装袋运输6个步骤，然而干制过程以经验为主，缺乏技术规范、理论指导，且存在辣椒易碎、发霉等问题。有必要对其实际干制过程进行监测，并制订相应的技术规程，以规范辣椒的自然干制过程，保障其安全性，提高其品质。本研究跟踪了红龙18、红龙23和铁皮椒3个常见品种的自然干制过程，监测了环境温湿度及风速、辣椒干基含水量、水分活度、色差及发霉率等指标，建立新疆辣椒戈壁滩自然干制模型，其干制过程符合Logarithmic干制模型。结合实际经验，提出应在辣椒干基含水量为1.0 g/g时开始拢堆，辣椒干基含水量为0.16 g/g时自然干制结束。此外，研究发现机械采收的辣椒损伤较多，自然干制过程中更易发霉。降低采收机械对辣椒的损伤、规范自然干制过程，有利于提高干制效率，保障干制辣椒安全性，促进干制辣椒产业高质量发展。
The natural drying process of chili peppers in Xinjiang Gobi Desert includes six steps which are hanging and drying， harvesting， spreading and drying， piling， sweating， bagging and transportation. However， the natural drying process is based on experience without technical protocol and theoretical guidance， in order that dried chili peppers are easy to be fragile and moldy. Therefore， it is necessary to monitor the natural drying process of chili peppers in Xinjiang Gobi Desert and develop its technical protocol， so as to standardize the natural drying process， ensure the safety and the quality of dried chili peppers. This study followed the natural drying process of three common varieties of chili peppers which were Honglong 18， Honglong 23 and Pepper Tiepi， and monitored the environmental temperature， humidity， wind speed， dry basis water content， water activity， color difference and moldy rate of drying chili peppers， and established a mathematical model of natural drying process of chili peppers in Xinjiang Gobi Desert. The natural drying process of chili peppers in Xinjiang Gobi Desert was in accordance with the Logarithmic drying model. Combined with the actual experience， this study regulated that the dry basis water content of peppers was about 1.0 g/g and 0.16 g/g when they were piled-up and at the end of natural drying. The determination of the dry base water content of chili peppers at the beginning of piling and the end of drying could provide a theoretical basis for the development of the technical protocol. In addition， this study found that mechanically harvested peppers were more damaged and more prone to mold in the natural drying process. Therefore， reducing the mechanical damage of peppers and standardizing the natural drying process were conducive to improving drying efficiency， ensuring the safety of dried peppers， and promoting the high-quality development of the dried chili pepper industry.