Matrix Effect of Exogenous Polyphenols on the Stability and Aroma Formation of Volatile Substances in Cabernet Sauvignon Dry Red Wine Fermentation

(1.College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi;2.Ningxia Vitis-viniculture Station of Northwest A&F University, Yongning 750104, Ningxia)

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    In this study, the matrix effects of exogenous addition of four representative polyphenolic substances on the stabilisation and aroma presentation of fermentation volatiles in Cabernet Sauvignon dry red wines were investigated. Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes were used as test material for winemaking, and exogenous chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and rutin were added singly prior to alcoholic fermentation. The fermentation aroma compositions and aroma profiles of wine samples from the treatment and control groups were analysed and evaluated at the end of alcoholic fermentation. Aroma components were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively by HS-SPME-GC-MS, and aroma profiles were quantitatively assessed by a sensory-trained tasting panel. The results showed that: a total of 27 fermentation aroma components were detected in the wine samples, among which 12 components had an odour activity value (OAV) greater than 1.0; from the contents of total esters, ethyl esters and ethyl esters of short-chain fatty acids, the chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and quercetin treatment groups all showed better stabilising effects; from the contents of acetate esters, the treatment groups all presented better substance contents; from the content of medium chain fatty acid ethyl ester, all treatment groups except protocatechuic acid were significantly lower than the control group. Compared with the control group, all treatment groups showed some enhancement of fruity aroma characteristics, especially the chlorogenic acid treatment group. Further analysis of the OAV of each aroma substance revealed that the chlorogenic acid treatment significantly enhanced the sour fruit, strawberry, and lactic flavours of the wines, while the protocatechuic acid treatment significantly enhanced the banana, strawberry, green apple, and sweet fruit flavours of the wines, compared with the control group. It can be seen that the addition of certain concentration of polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid before alcoholic fermentation can effectively retain the fermentation aroma substances in wine and significantly enhance the fruity character of wine. This study clarified the polyphenol matrix effect of wine aroma, providing reference for the optimization practice of wine aroma enhancemen.

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  • Received:June 27,2023
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  • Online: May 24,2024
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