Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology (International standard serial numbering ISSN 1009-7848; Chinese numbering CN 11-4528/TS) is published monthly by Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology (CIFST). As an official magazine of the institute, it aims to present up-to-date progress of research and development in food science and technology being the sound base of modern food industry in China, and to promote the academic exchange for domestic and international food professionals.

Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology is the food publications on behalf of the Chinese food industry and the level of science and technology core journals of science and technology of China and the Chinese core journals. It has been included by many famous domestic and foreign literature retrieval institutions such as the Engineering Index (EI), Chemical Abstracts (CA), Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA), Scopus, Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD) journal, JSTChina, etc. The regular contents of the journal include original study reports, reviews, professional’s forum, academic activities, technology news, CIFST information etc. The topics cover food chain related areas: Raw material, ingredient, technology, packaging, machinery, detection methods, safety and security, circulation, comprehensive utilization, new product studying achievement, experiment and research report, monographic thesis of food and food industry development, and the review of international food consuming trends, food science and technology development, food policy and regulation. The journal is read by food scientists, food engineer, food technologists, agronomist, nutritionist, medical professionals, research work mangers, enterprisers, educators, students, food policy makers, etc. It will be recognized as the high-level academic journal among the more than 160 food magazines. CIFST has already established the IUFoST’s satellite office in China under the authorization of IUFoST on April, 2002. The journal will further act as an important role in the international exchange and cooperation of worldwide food professionals.

  • Current Issue
  • Archive
  • Most Downloaded
    Article Search
    Search by issue
    Select AllDeselectExport
    Display Method:
    2024,24(1):1-11, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.001
    Abstract:
    Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the main microbial groups for probiotics screening, and have important application value in promoting human, animal, and even plant health. They are widely used in various functional foods, animal feed, and microbial fertilizers. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these bacteria have a positive impact on host health are still far from fully understood. In addition, traditional probiotic screening techniques mainly rely on the determination of phenotype and physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as randomized controlled trials. These methods are not only time-consuming and laborious, but also difficult to replicate data. It seriously restricted the development of probiotics science and the utilization of strains because the difficulty in sharing data among different research groups, as well as the inability to achieve uniformity and standardized validation of beneficial characteristics of strains. The emergence of a new discipline called Probiogenomics, based on new sequencing techniques and powerful computer analysis methods, allowed researchers to significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of probiotic screening by screening large amounts of biological data in a short period of time, greatly promoted the identification of probiotic characteristics and mechanism characterization. The latest research results on how genomic data analysis can help people efficiently and quickly identify probiotics, open up new functional evaluation pathways for probiotics, and evaluate the molecular basis of probiotic characteristic functions were reviewed in the present paper. The aim was to provide a new perspective for expanding our understanding of these beneficial microbial genomics and revealing the molecular mechanisms by which probiotics promote health characteristics.
    2024,24(1):12-20, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.002
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the spoilage ability and gene characteristics of Brochothrix thermosphacta in beef, 29 strains were obtained by purification, morphological observation and PCR identification from chilled beef. The spoilage potential of these isolates was evaluated by the production of total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N) and acetoin index in beef juice at 4 ℃. The whole genome sequences of strong and weak spoilers were compared. The results showed that the TVB-N values increased slowly, and only two strains exceeded 11.5 mg N/100 g on the 9th day. In contrast, these isolates strongly produced acetoin, and their producing abilities differed. The acetoin contents of strain BT27 and BT25 were 139.3 μg/mL and 59.5 μg/mL, respectively. The whole genome sequencing of BT27 and BT25 showed a large number of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, the largest number of genes was encoding glycoside hydrolase, followed by glycosyltransferase genes. Comparative genomics showed that the number of genes encoding carbohydrate metabolism and corresponding enzymes of strong spoiler BT27 was more than that of weak spoiler BT25, while the number of genes encoding amino acid metabolism was similar between them. This study indicated that the spoilage ability of B. thermosphacta was correlated to the number of genes encoding carbohydrate metabolism, which provided the genetic point of view for elucidating the spoilage mechanism of meat microbiology.
    2024,24(1):21-30, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.003
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study was to screen new drugs that can inhibit the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila and eliminate infections caused by A. hydrophila contaminated aquatic products. The results showed that tea polyphenols had no role on bacterial growth at concentrations lower than 128 μg/mL, but tea polyphenols could inhibit the hemolytic activity of aerolysin at concentrations ranging from 1-8 μg/mL. The results of thermal shift and heptamer formation assays showed that tea polyphenols could inhibit the formation of functional heptamer by directly binding to aerolysin and results in loss of activity. Cell viability assays showed that tea polyphenols of 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL could provide a significant protection to A549 cells from aerolysin mediated cell injury. Moreover, experimental therapeutics found that tea polyphenols at a dosage of 50 mg/kg could increase the survival rate of channel catfish infected with A. hydrophila to 60%. The above experiments showed that tea polyphenols directly bind to aerolysin and inhibit the activity of aerolysin by reducing the formation of functional heptamer, and tea polyphenols can significantly reduce the pathogenicity of A. hydrophila both in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that tea polyphenols can be used as an alternative or adjuvant therapy to antibiotics for the treatment of A. hydrophila-related infections.
    2024,24(1):31-40, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.004
    Abstract:
    In this paper, Black bean nattokinase crude extract (BNCE) was isolated by fermenting natto from Huguan black beans. Its structural was preliminary investigated, as well as the determination of enzyme activity, thrombolytic function and immunomodulatory effect were carried out. The structure of BNCE is identified by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Enzymatic activity and thrombolytic function of BNCE were determined by fibrin plate method and animal blood clot method, respectively. The effect of BNCE on the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells was investigated by MTT colorimetric method. Neutral red staining was employed to investigate the effect of BNCE on the phagocytosis rate of RAW264.7 cells. In the effect of BNCE, the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β by RAW264.7 cells was investigated by ELISA. The results showed that BNCE was a protein with different sizes and irregular shapes of fragments, exhibiting certain fibrinolytic activity and thrombolytic function. BNCE can promote the proliferation and enhanced the phagocytosis rate of RAW264.7 cells in normal state as well as in the LPS-activated state in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, BNCE can also promote the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and inhibite the secretion of IL-6 in normal state RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, BNCE can also inhibite the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-activated state RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, BNCE has certain immunomodulatory effects, and can be used as a good raw material for food industry.
    2024,24(1):41-48, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.005
    Abstract:
    In this paper, the intermolecular force of soybean 7S and chitosan(CS) was destroyed by urea molecules to fully dissociate them. The dissociated 7S and CS were self-assembled to prepare 7S protein-CS nanoparticles (SCP) driven by hydrophobic and electrostatic attraction. The ζ-potential of the SCP particles was similar to that of the CS, suggesting a "core-shell" structure, which was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SCP particles were evenly and gradually released during the in vitro digestion process, suggesting that SCP particles possess a specific level of stability in the gastrointestinal environment. In order to examine the characteristics of SCP particles as carriers, the impact of SCP particles on the anticancer properties of curcumin was studied. The results showed that there was no notable disparity in the ability to inhibit the growth of Caco-2 cells between curcumin embedded in SCP particles and free curcumin. This suggests that utilizing SCP particles is an efficient approach to enhance the effectiveness and biological activity of curcumin.
    2024,24(1):49-62, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.006
    Abstract:
    In this research, two hydroxybenzoic acids, gallic acid (GA) and vanillic acid (VA), were covalently cross-linked with whey protein isolate (WPI) to prepare composite particles (WGA and WVA). The sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity and other physical and chemical indicators of the particles were determined, and the secondary and tertiary structures were characterized. Pine nut oil Pickering emulsions (WGAP and WVAP) were prepared with particles as emulsifiers. Effects of the changes in the surface hydrophobicity of particles induced by two phenolic compounds with different structures and dose on the physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation capacity were evaluated. Pickering emulsion was characterized by the particle size distribution, rheological behavior and lipid oxidation products. The results showed that the sulfhydryl content of WGA and WVA was decreased, surface hydrophobicity was significantly increased (P<0.05); maximum emission peaks of WGA and WVA were both red-shifted to 361.07 nm. The fluorescence intensity quenching rates of WGA were 91.05%, 89.98% and 94.02%, respectively, while the fluorescence intensity quenching rates of WVA were 20.12%, 27.49% and 31.19%, respectively. Compared with control WPP, the main peak position of WGAP particle size distribution was concentrated between 204.1-276.4 nm; the main peak position of WVAP particle size distribution was concentrated between 217.7-256.2 nm. Both WGAP and WVAP were pseudoplastic fluids, the storage modulus (G') was always higher than the loss modulus(G''), and could inhibit the production of lipid oxidation products. Two hydroxybenzoic acids can increase the surface hydrophobicity to different degrees that improve the physical and chemical properties of the emulsion and reduce the generation of oxidation products in the process of lipid oxidation. The interfacial properties of proteins are improved by hydrophobic aggregation of proteins or the formation of thiol-quinone adducts, so that the particle size distribution of Pickering emulsions is more uniform, the system tends to be stable, and the degree of lipid oxidation is lower.
    2024,24(1):63-71, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.007
    Abstract:
    In this study, sugar beet pectin (SBP) with different crosslinking time was prepared by laccase, and its structure and rheological properties were studied. The results showed that the molar mass of SBP increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of crosslinking time. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) observation showed that the bulk structure of SBP gradually became fluffy after crosslinking treatment, and obvious linear and honeycomb structures appeared on the surface. The thermal stability of SBP was enhanced after crosslinking treatment, and the mass residue rate increased from 32.37% to 42.20%. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the crystal structure of SBP did not change significantly after crosslinking treatment. Rheological analysis showed that SBP solution exhibited a pseudoplastic behavior, and the influence of shear rate on the viscosity was greatly modified by the presence of sucrose. Moreover, the higher the temperature in the whole shear rate range, the lower the viscosity of SBP. With the extension of crosslinking time, the apparent activation energy Ea of SBP increased from 1.659×104 J/mol reduced to 1.097×104 J/mol, indicating that the effect of temperature on the viscosity of crosslinked SBP is weakened. These results of this study can provide a theoretical reference for the further development and utilization of SBP.
    2024,24(1):72-82, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.008
    Abstract:
    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of heat treatment on the nutritional characteristics of fresh lotus root, considering its different varieties and growth stages. Specifically, the alterations in phenolic content, digestive features, and in vitro antioxidant capacity induced by steam heating were studied. The results showed that heat treatment led to a significant reduction in free phenols and free flavonoids in lotus roots(P<0.05), accompanied by a decrease in DPPH free radical scavenging ability and FRAP total antioxidant capacity. Notably, high-pressure heating resulted in a greater reduction compared to atmospheric heating. Furthermore, heat treatment significantly influenced the release of phenolic compounds during simulated digestion processes of lotus root. In unheat treated samples, the average amounts of released phenolic compounds were 15.18 mg/g dw in saliva, 11.23 mg/g dw in gastric juice, and 3.18 mg/g dw in intestinal juice; whereas for atmospheric heated samples these values were respectively 9.74, 15.14 mg/g dw and 4.92 mg/g dw. The order of DPPH free radical scavenging ability was found to be gastric juice > saliva > intestinal juice; while for FRAP antioxidant ability it was saliva > gastric juice > intestinal juice. Overall, the results suggest that heat treatment can modify the nutrient properties of lotus root by influencing the digestion process and release of phenolic compounds. These findings provide valuable insights for quality control during thermal processing of lotus root.
    2024,24(1):83-91, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.009
    Abstract:
    LuxS/AI-2, as an interspecific communication quorum sensing (QS) system, is commonly found in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which can regulate the probiotic properties of LAB, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance, bile salt tolerance, cells adhesion. In this study, LAB with production of AI-2 signal molecule was screened using strain Vibrio harveyi BB170 reporting method. The expression of luxS gene was detected by PCR sequencing. Moreover, the probiotic properties of high-yield AI-2 LAB were evaluated by acid resistance, bile salt resistance, antibacterial and cells adhesion. The results showed that ten strains of LAB producing AI-2 were screened from two hundred strains LAB. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum SCT-2 had strong ability to produce AI-2 signal molecule. The luxS gene was further verified exist in strain SCT-2. The survival rates of acid and bile salt resistant in strain SCT-2 were 14%-92% and 63%-89%, respectively. The antibacterial diameter of strain SCT-2 ranged from 17.50 mm to 19.43 mm. The number of adhesion cells of strain SCT-2 was 102 CFU/cell. Compared to LAB with low production AI-2, the biofilm formation, acid tolerance, bile salt tolerance, inhibitory rate and cell adhesion of strain SCT-2 increased by 111.4%, 8%, 15%, 26.7% and 197%, respectively. These results indicated that luxS gene was the key gene of AI-2 signal synthesis. LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing system improves the biofilm forming ability, acid tolerance, bile salt tolerance antibacterial ability and cells adhesion of LAB. It will provide a theoretical basis for the development of LAB biological agent with good probiotic properties.
    2024,24(1):92-101, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.010
    Abstract:
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common foodborne pathogen that impacts food safety and public health. In this study, peptides were screened from Lacticaseibacillus paracasei fermented broth and identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. One of the peptides, named Yt9z (RQQAENLAKFAKKG) with antibacterial potential was further screened by bioinformatics. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Yt9z against V. parahaemolyticus was 125 μg/mL, with all the bacteria being killed within 3 h. The antibacterial mechanism of Yt9z was further explored through membrane permeability, transmission electron microscope, DNA gel, and circular dichroism. The results showed that peptide Yt9z could change its secondary structure in different environments, which increased the membrane permeability. Moreover, peptide Yt9z penetrated bacteria membranes to kill the bacteria by DNA binding. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the application of peptide Yt9z in the control of V. parahaemolyticus contamination.
    2024,24(1):102-109, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.011
    Abstract:
    This study was aimed at isolate human bifidobacterium and identify and study its characteristics. A suspected bifidobacterium strain was isolated from the feces of healthy infants, and its probiotic characteristics and fermentation characteristics were identified and analyzed. The results showed that a strain isolated from stool samples of infants was identified as Bifidobacterium longum and named Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum i772. Further studies showed that it was sensitive to 25 antibiotics. The survival rate of artificial simulated digestive juice was 3.22%. In vitro intervention of THP-1 cells, Bifidobacterium longum i772 increased the proinflammatory immune factors IL-8, TNF-α and TLR4 by 12.71, 5.71 and 12.56 times, respectively, compared with the control group. In the fermented milk preparation experiment, the addition of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum i772 significantly (P < 0.05) improved the mouth viscosity and cohesion of the fermented milk. The above experiments showed that human Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum i772 had the characteristics of tolerance to artificial gastric and intestinal fluid, regulation of immunity, and was suitable to be added into fermented milk as probiotics.
    2024,24(1):110-118, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.012
    Abstract:
    In order to clarify the application potential and application scope of crude powder in food processing and storage, the antibacterial spectrum was first determined. Using Candida albicans as the indicator bacteria, the relative antibacterial activity of crude powder was evaluated from the minimum inhibitory concentration, temperature, pH, salt concentration,repeated freezing and storage time, and finally the safety evaluation was conducted. The results showed that, crude powder of Lactobacillus-derived antimicrobial peptide has broad-spectrum antibacterial properties; With its good thermal stability, 121 ℃ still maintain 79.68% relative antibacterial activity for 20 min; pH 2-6 treatment maintained over 90% of the relative antibacterial activity after 4 h, almost complete inactivation after 4 h of pH 10-12 treatment; When the salt mass concentration reaches 0.8 mg/mL, the relative antibacterial activity was significantly reduced (P<0.05); The relative antibacterial activity had no significant change after storage at different low temperatures for different time (P > 0.05); The relative antibacterial activity after repeated freezing and thawing 5 times at -20 ℃ was also not different (P>0.05); The safety evaluation confirmed that crude powder belongs to the actual non-toxic safety level. In conclusion, it can be seen that the crude powder of Lactobacillus-derived antimicrobial peptide has good stability and a wide range of applications, and has broad application prospects as a biological preservative in the food field.
    2024,24(1):119-125, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.013
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rice bran phenolic extracts (RBPE) supplementation on glucose metabolism and oxidative stress in high-fat diet induced mice, which could provide theoretical basis for revealing the effect of rice bran on glucose metabolism. Methods: After 1 week of acclimatization, mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, high-fat diet group, low-dose RBPE group (200 mg/kg, HF+LP group) and high-dose RBPE group (400 mg/kg, HF+HP group). The experiment lasted for 16 weeks. The organ-body ratio, epididymal fat morphology, fasting serum glucose level, oral glucose tolerance and the levels of oxidative stress were measured. Results: RBPE dose-dependently decreased the organ-body ratio, fasting blood glucose and ameliorated the impaired glucose tolerance induced by high-fat diet. Compared with the high-fat diet group, organ-body ratio of the liver of HF+LP and HF+HP groups were decreased by 15.75% and 39.61%, respectively, the organ-body ratio of epididymal adipose tissue decreased by 23.03% and 39.83%, respectively, the organ-body ratio of renal peritoneal adipose tissue decreased by 43.68% and 56.83%, respectively, fasting blood glucose levels decreased by 14.06% and 20.21%, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve decreased by 19.06% and 23.81%, respectively. Further studies showed that low and high doses of RBPE can significantly reduce serum and liver tissue MDA content and increase SOD activity in high-fat diet induced mice. Compared with the high-fat diet group mice, serum and liver MDA content in HF+HP group mice were decreased by 48.93% and 38.68%, respectively, SOD activity increased by 80.44% and 67.05%, respectively; RBPE treatment could also increase antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and the content of antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue of high-fat diet induced mice (P<0.05). Compared with the high-fat diet group mice, CAT, GSH-px activity and GSH content in HF+HP group mice were increased by 48.49%, 31.67% and 123.90%, respectively. Conclusion: RBPE could alleviate the impaired glucose metabolism induced by high-fat diet, which might be related to its inhibition effect on oxidative stress.
    2024,24(1):126-135, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.014
    Abstract:
    Objective: Arctium lappa L. root is a edible food and medicinal material, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of burdock root on liver-protecting, lipid-lowering and regulating hepatogenic dysglycemia in simplicity obesity rats. Methods: In this study, the model of simplicity obesity rats was established, intervention treatment by gavage of Arctium lappa L. root powder was carried out. The body weight, food intake, blood biochemical indicators, fat weight and lipid levels in the liver such as TG, CHOL were detected, and the pathological changes of the liver and pancreas were detected by HE staining and oil red O staining. Results: After the 4th week of gavage with Arctium lappa L. root, the intervention group significantly inhibited the weight gain of the obesity rats(P<0.05). The levels of TG, TCHO, LDL-C, GLU, NEFA were lower than those of the model rats (P<0.05); the intervention of Arctium lappa L. root can significantly reduce the lipid droplet deposition in the liver of obesity rats, and the contents of TG and CHOL in the liver were decreased (P < 0.05), the liver damage of the obese rats was alleviated; the pancreas pathological section results of the Arctium lappa L. intervention group showed that the morphology was ameliorated to the level of the control group, and it could inhibit the increase of hepatogenic blood glucose in the obese rats(P < 0.05). Conclusion: Arctium lappa L. root has an inhibitory effect on the body weight of obesity rats, ameliorate s liver steatosis, reduces liver damage and can effectively regulate the hepatogenic dysglycemia.
    2024,24(1):136-145, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.015
    Abstract:
    In this study, sesame was used as raw material to explore the effects of germination time, germination temperature, calcium chloride solution concentration, sodium glutamate solution concentration, freezing time, thawing temperature and thawing time on the content of γ-aminobutyric acid in the process of sesame germination. The results showed that the content of γ-aminobutyric acid increased significantly with the prolonging of germination time, and the content of γ-aminobutyric acid increased to 7.19 mg/g at 3.0 d germination. At 30 ℃, the content of γ-aminobutyric acid increased to the maximum; Both calcium chloride solution and sodium glutamate solution were beneficial to the transformation of γ-aminobutyric acid; Freeze-thawing treatment has a significant effect on the conversion of γ-aminobutyric acid. The optimal conversion conditions of γ-aminobutyric acid were as follows: freezing stress for 18 h, thawing temperature for 32 ℃ and thawing time for 15 h. Under these conditions, the content of γ-aminobutyric acid in sesame was 10.02 mg/g. The content of γ-aminobutyric acid in sesame was increased by 3.02 times and 4.06 times compared with that in the control group.
    2024,24(1):146-159, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.016
    Abstract:
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula anomalies as yellow rice wine fermentation strains, the fermentation characteristics of the two yeasts on the 18 °Bx saccharification solution were investigated respectively. It was found that the alcohol-producing capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (9.9% vol) was stronger than that of Hansenula anomala (6.8% vol), and the volatile ester content (2.41 g/L) of Hansenula anomalies was significantly higher than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.53 g/L). Further comparing the mixed fermentation pathways, the alcohol content of sequential mixed fermentation (8.1%vol) was slightly lower than that of simultaneous mixed fermentation alcohol (8.7% vol), and the volatile ester content (1.59 g/L) was significantly higher than that of simultaneous mixed fermentation (0.56 g/L) (P<0.05). Combined with the physical and chemical indicators of the fermentation process and sensory evaluation, it is more appropriate to choose a sequential mixed fermentation route. Through the combined experimental design of the single-factor and Box-Benhnken Center, the response surface of the volatile ester content of the sequentially mixed fermented rice wine products was optimized by selecting three factors: the main fermentation temperature, pH value and yeast inoculation amount. The results showed that the optimal parameters for sequential mixing of standing fermented yellow rice wine were: fermentation temperature of 31.5 ℃, inoculation amount of 1.0×107 cells/mL, and pH of 4.2. The verification experiments showed that the volatile ester content of sequentially mixed yellow rice wine under this condition was (1.66±0.028) g/L, which was not much different from the predicted value of 1.70 g/L, which was 213% higher than the fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone. In this study, the fermentation pathway and application effect were elucidated for the application of non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae in yellow rice wine fermentation.
    2024,24(1):160-168, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.017
    Abstract:
    This study employed four commercial enzymes (three cellulases: S22178, FoodProR CBL, ViscozymeRL, and one hemicellulase) for the extraction of pectin from green tea. The investigation focused on their impact on the primary structure of pectin and explored the relationships among the composition, molecular weight distribution, particle size distribution, and pectin viscosity after purification. The goal was to develop an extraction method for obtaining structurally intact natural pectin. Results indicated that all four enzymes efficiently extracted pectin, with extraction yields reaching 80%. S22178 and ViscozymeRL disrupted the main chain structure of pectin, particularly its homogalacturonan (HG) backbone, while the hemicellulase and FoodProRCBL did not significantly affect the main and side chain structures of pectin. The purified sample with FoodProRCBL exhibited the highest viscosity (η1=1 227 mPa·s), whereas the hemicellulase-purified sample had lower viscosity (η1=154 mPa·s), and ViscozymeRL showed nearly zero viscosity. In conclusion, pectin obtained through the FoodProRCBL process closely resembled the original pectin state, with a purified pectin content of 48% (HG backbone 43%, RG-I side chain 5%). The particle sizes among components were similar, exhibiting good rheological properties and displaying typical shear-thinning behavior.
    2024,24(1):169-178, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.018
    Abstract:
    To reduce the rinse water of surimi and maintain the quality of surimi, potassium chloride (KCl), sodium citrate and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) were used to rinse surimi once in this experiment. In the single factor experiment, when the KCl quality fractions in the rinse solution is 1.0%, the gel strength is 312.28 g·cm and the whiteness is 75.28, reaching the maximum value, which significantly improves its texture characteristics and water holding capacity (80.98%). When the quality fractions of sodium citrate in the rinse solution is 0.15%, the gel strength is 300.78 g·cm and whiteness is 75.34, which reaches the maximum value, which significantly improves its texture characteristics and water holding capacity(85.55%). When the CMC quality fractions in the rinse solution was 1.2%, the gel strength was 348.39 g·cm and whiteness was 73.89, which reached the maximum value, significantly improving the texture characteristics and water holding capacity(85.48%), and the water holding capacity increased with the increase of CMC content. On this basis, combined rinsing is carried out once. It was found that the rinsing method of 1.0%KCl+0.15% sodium citrate+1.2%CMC had the best improvement effect. After rinsing, the gel strength of surimi was 365.62 g·cm, the whiteness was 75.31, the water holding capacity was 87.12%, and the surimi yield was 75.41%. Compared with the three-time rinsing method in industry, except the gel strength of surimi decreased by 10.55%, other indexes were significantly improved. This single rinsing method can effectively improve the quality of surimi, reduce the rinsing times, and the water consumption of rinsing is about 1/3 of that of industrial rinsing.
    2024,24(1):179-189, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.019
    Abstract:
    Thermal processing can destroy harmful microorganisms in food, but also can change the flavor and texture of meat products and their nutritional and digestive properties. In addition, excessive thermal processing can lead to protein oxidation, effect the sensory quality of aquatic products and nutritional value. In order to reduce oxidation of proteins during thermal processing, natural polyphenols are used to improve the functional properties or nutritional value of proteins. The effects of different concentrations of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) on sensory properties and protein oxidation of microwave-heated sea bass fillets were investigated. The results showed that EGCG and EGC can decrease significantly cooking loss, and the cooking loss rate was decreased by 47.98%-62.72% and 38.54%-58.63%, compared with the control. Hardness and chewiness, carbonyl, free amino and disulfide bond content of sea bass fillets were decreased, but moisture content and sulfhydryl group content were increased. EGCG and EGC significantly improved the breakage and aggregation of muscle fiber tissues in sea bass fillets; reduced the acidity in the fillets and did not increase their astringency. EGCG and EGC reduced the volatile odor of nitrogen oxide-type and contributed to the generation of sulfur-containing compounds-type odor in the sea bass fillets.
    2024,24(1):190-199, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.020
    Abstract:
    In this study the intermittent infrared assisted heat pump was used to longan drying, and the drying characteristics, color change, rehydration properties, antioxidant activity and volatile profiles of longan under different drying conditions were measured. The results indicated that intermittent infrared assisted heat pump drying could dramatically shorten drying time and improved the comprehensive quality of dried longan. Specifically, the intermittent infrared assisted heat pump drying time of longan was reduced 25%-28.6% and the rehydration rate was increased 2.65%-8.21% when compared with the single heat pump drying. Total color change of the intermittent infrared assisted heat pump dried longan was lower than the single heat pump dried longan coupled with more uniformity color distribution of dried longan pulp surface. Moreover, the higher ferric reducing antioxidant power, 4.42%-17.95%, was also observed in intermittent infrared assisted heat pump dried longan. The types or content of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters in longan were increased after drying, and (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one, 1-octanol, and ethyl caprate were only detected in intermittent infrared assisted heat pump dried longan, which indicated that intermittent infrared assistant effectively enriched the volatile profiles of dried longan. In general, 60 ℃ heat pump drying coupled with 2 min every 5 min intermittent infrared was the best assisted drying scheme in all the selected methods, which is benefit to improve the qualities and volatile profiles formation of longan.
    2024,24(1):200-208, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.021
    Abstract:
    In order to investigate the temperature and moisture distribution in sweet potato slices during hot air drying, a numerical model was established to simulate the heat and mass transfer processes at different constant drying temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80 ℃). Due to the significant shrinkage effect of the materials during hot air drying, the effective moisture diffusion coefficient changed, which affected the accuracy of simulation. Therefore, this study compared the heat and mass transfer processes, accounting for both temperature and shrinkage-related diffusion coefficients. The results showed that the shrinkage-related effective moisture diffusion coefficient can describe the hot air drying process of sweet potato chips more accurately. The coefficient of determination (R2) between the simulated value and the experimental value, based on the shrinkage moisture ratio and temperature, ranged from 0.976 to 0.994 and 0.961 to 0.981, respectively. To determine the influence of different hot air temperatures on the quality of dried sweet potato slices, the optimal temperature for hot air drying of sweet potato slices was 60 ℃ based on the analysis of color difference, rehydration rate and sensory score. From the simulation test results, it concluded that the effective moisture diffusion coefficient increases with the increase of hot air temperature, and the heat and mass transfer coefficients were significantly affected by the change of sweet potato chip temperature and drying process. The developed model can serve as a reference for simulating the drying process of other agricultural crops under various drying temperatures.
    2024,24(1):209-219, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.022
    Abstract:
    In order to investigate the effect of salting time on physicochemical properties and roasting quality of Larimichthys crocea, the fish meat was salted in curing solution containing 1% transglutaminase, 10% salt and 15% sorbitol. The water-maintaining ability, texture, thermal stability and tissue structure of the salted fish meat, as well as the quality of the salted fish meat after roasting were evaluated. When the salting time increased from 2 h to 8 h, the hardness of salted fish meat decreased from 948.76 g to 352.67 g, while the cooking loss rate increased from 11.20% to 18.52%. The hardness increased and the cooking loss rate decreased when the salting time was further increased. As shown in scanning electron microscopy image, the fish salted for 2-8 h presented a loose fibrous structure, while the density of meat structure increased with further increase of salting time. After being roasted, the fish salted for 2-24 h showed a large interspace in fibrous structure with no significant change in hardness, while both dense microstructure and high hardness were found in the fish salted for 48 h. With the increase of salting time, the saltiness, umami, astringency and richness of the roasted fish gradually increased, while the bitterness gradually decreased; the volatile odors related to the nitrogen oxides, broad-methane, sulfides, sulfur organic compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones were significantly increased. The results obtained in this study suggested that the physicochemical properties and roasting quality of salted L. crocea can be regulated by the salting time, which will provide theoretical guidance for the development of pre-prepared dishes using L. crocea.
    2024,24(1):220-231, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.023
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the changes of blueberry quality after microenvironment fluctuations (i.e., temperature fluctuations, gas environment fluctuations, and temperature and gas fluctuations) under the state of ice temperature and gas regulation, Lanfeng blueberry was taken as the test material and pre-cooled at different ice temperature (-2 ℃ and -1 ℃) for air conditioning (CO2: 10%-14%; O2: 6%-9%) were stored in the environment for 7 days, and the optimal environmental state of blueberry fruit was analyzed. On this basis, three groups of microenvironment fluctuation tests were designed, namely, temperature fluctuation, air fluctuation, temperature and air fluctuation, which fluctuated for 1aq to 6 days, respectively. After each fluctuation, corresponding measures were taken for storage. The hardness, cohesion, titrable acid content, anthocyanin content and malonaldehyde content of blueberry fruits in each experimental group were measured for 1 to 7 days. The results showed that the fresh-keeping effect of experimental group was better. In the microenvironment fluctuation test, the optimal storage time of blueberry was 1 day. The optimal ice temperature and air conditioning environment of Lanfeng blueberry fruit was -1 ℃ (CO2:10%-12%, O2:6%-9%), and there was a negative correlation between blueberry fruit quality and fluctuation time. Although cooling/oxygen lowering/double descending methods had certain effects, the blueberry fruit quality could not be restored to the best state in the ice temperature and air conditioning group.
    2024,24(1):232-241, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.024
    Abstract:
    A method based on strand displacement amplification (SDA) and electrochemical aptamer sensor technology was constructed to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food. According to the OTA specific aptamers, the hairpin structure was designed, and the SDA reaction recognition sites were set in the stems of the hairpin structure. SDA amplification was carried out. The amplified products were hybridized with the electrochemical probe modified ferrocene (FC) to change the electrical signal, so as to establish an electrochemical aptamer sensor for detecting OTA. The specificity of the method was evaluated through the determination of seven groups of different toxins, and its sensitivity and detection limit were determined. The results were compared with the national standard of ochratoxin A enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (GB 5009.96-2016). The results showed that under the optimal conditions, the linear range of the sensitivity of the electrochemical aptamer sensor was 0.1 pg/mL - 10 ng/mL, the detection limit (LOD) was 0.05 pg/mL. When OTA exists, the test result is positive, and when OTA does not exist, the test result is negative, indicating that the specificity of this method is good. In the manual spiked test, the spiked recovery of the electrochemical aptamer sensor is 96.60%-99.04% and that of ELISA (national standard) is 94.00%-98.50%. Therefore, the spiked recovery of this method is better than that of the national standard method. In conclusion, this method has the potential of rapid detection of OTA in food, provides a new detection idea for rapid detection of OTA in food, and has high practical value.
    2024,24(1):242-251, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.025
    Abstract:
    In this study, It combined saltatory rolling circle amplification (SRCA) with fluorescence technology to establish a real-time fluorescence SRCA technique for detection of honey adulterated rice syrup. Three DNA extraction protocols were evaluated, four specific genes of rice (PDL, SPS, rbcL, GOS9) were used as target sequences to design primers, suitable primers were screened, amplification reaction conditions were optimized, and a method for detection of honey adulterated rice syrup was established in combination with fluorescence technology. The results showed that the sensitivity of the established real-time fluorescence SRCA method for the detection of rice DNA was 8.45×101 fg/μL, and its good specificity was confirmed by the specificity evaluation. The linear relationship between the logarithm of the proportion of adulteration and the Ct value was established in the manual simulated adulteration detection test, and the linear equation was y=6.618x+7.651 (R2=0.993), which can accurately detect the components of rice syrup in honey down to 1%. The method is sensitive, with low detection limit, and can quickly and accurately quantify the adulteration of honey with rice syrup, which provides a new idea for the rapid quantitative detection of honey adulteration.
    2024,24(1):252-262, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.026
    Abstract:
    By analyzing the changes of main chemical components and sensory quality of white tea cakes in different years, it provides support for reasonable evaluation of the relationship between storage years and sensory quality of white tea cakes. Taking white tea cakes stored for 2 to 19 years as research materials, the main chemical components were determined, combined with sensory evaluation, and the relationship between main chemical components and sensory quality was discussed by principal component analysis, cluster analysis, correlation analysis, multiple linear regression and path analysis. With the increase of storage years, tea polyphenols, free amino acids and thearubigins showed a downward trend, with the lowest values of 50.71, 5.78 mg/g and 6.82 mg/g, respectively. However, total flavonoids and theabrownin showed an upward trend, with the highest values of 62.18 mg/g and 27.09 mg/g, respectively. The results of principal component analysis and sensory analysis showed that white tea cakes stored for 4 years ranked first in the overall quality and the highest total score of 96.8 in sensory quality was considered to have the best quality. Cluster analysis showed that the transformation reaction of tea cake was intense in the second, fourth and sixth years of storage, but it became stable and its sensory quality gradually increased in the eighth to nineteenth years. Path analysis showed that in the changes of sensory quality of white tea cakes in different years, caffeine content was positively correlated with sensory quality of aged white tea cakes, while total flavonoids content was negatively correlated. The sensory quality of white tea cakes stored for 4 years, 10 years and 19 years is the best overall, and the contents of caffeine and total flavonoids can be used as direct factors to evaluate the quality of aged white tea cakes.
    2024,24(1):263-277, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.027
    Abstract:
    In this paper, 6-7 month-old small tailed Han sheep weighing 50 kg were used as experimental objects, and NM, LLDM and RG were selected for correlation analysis of flavor substances, fatty acids and amino acids of small tailed Han sheep. The results showed that 45 flavor compounds were detected in three parts, among which aldehydes were the most important flavor compounds, accounting for about 50% of the total compounds. By principal compounds analysis, 24 flavor substances such as heptanal, nonanal and benzaldehyde were the main influencing factors leading to the difference of flavor substances in different parts. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids beneficial to human body in LLDM was the highest, and the proportion of fatty acids was more in line with human body's demand for the nutrition in mutton fatty acids, which was more beneficial to human health. Glutamic acid (Glu) and lysine (Lys) were the main amino acids, accounting for about 17% and 10% of the total amino acids. The content of RG was the highest except methionine (Met), tyrosine (Tyr) and lysine (Lys), and there was no significant difference between RG and LLDM except glutamic acid (Glu) and proline (Pro), but difference between RG and NM were to the contrary. The correlation analysis showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were positively correlated with most flavor compounds, and significantly positively correlated with aldehydes, alcohols and aromatic compounds. This could be that polyunsaturated fatty acids were easily oxidized, and aldehydes, alcohols and aromatic compounds are produced in that oxidation process. There was a positive correlation between amino acids and most aldehydes and alcohols, which may be that amino acids eventually produced aldehydes and alcohols through a series of reactions such as transamination.
    2024,24(1):278-290, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.028
    Abstract:
    The fermented chopped pepper in a large ceramic jar was selected as the research object, its organic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the differences of volatile substances and microorganisms at the next three different spatial levels were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS and high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the organic acid and volatile matter content and microbial composition were significantly different at each spatial level (P<0.05). Among them, the content of total volatile substances was upper layer > lower layer > middle layer, and Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Tetragenococcus, Staphylococcus, etc were the dominant fermentation bacteria. The correlation analysis showed that multiple species of bacteria in the samples had a positive effect on the formation of organic acids and flavor compounds. This study revealed the differences in the fermentation of chopped peppers at the spatial level, and provided a theoretical basis for improving the quality of chopped peppers in the industrialized production.
    2024,24(1):291-300, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.029
    Abstract:
    Polyphenols are the main active components of legumes and have important effects on the antioxidant function of these foods. In this study, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 was used to ferment 8 kinds of legumes, and the effects of fermentation on the content of phenolic substances and antioxidant activity in legumes were analyzed. The total phenol content of fermented red bean, kidney bean, broad bean, mung bean, soybean, lentil and pea increased by 24.19%, 57.89%, 123.78%, 172.90%, 225.32%, 300.00% and 343.17%, respectively. The comparison of 19 phenolic compounds in 8 kinds of beans before and after fermentation showed that fermentation affected the contents of catechin, epicatechin, salicylic acid and sinapic acid. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate, ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity and iron ion reducing ability of fermented mung bean, soybean, pea and lentil extract were improved. The total phenol content was significantly correlated with DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity and iron ion reduction ability (P<0.01), catechin, salicylic acid and sinapic acid were significantly correlated with DPPH(P<0.01), epicatechin was significantly correlated with DPPH (P<0.05). The results showed that soybean, mung bean, pea and lentil were the ideal food raw materials for preparing products rich in phenols and high antioxidant activity by using Bacillus subtilis fermentation, which is suitable for the development of fermented bean functional food.
    2024,24(1):301-314, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.030
    Abstract:
    Headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and electronic nose were used to determine the volatile components of yam slices processed by hot-air drying (HAD), microwave drying (MD), vacuum drying (VD), vacuum freeze-drying (VFD) and combined drying. The effects of drying processing on the flavor of yam slices were studied by principal component analysis. The results showed that a total of 95 kinds of volatile substances were detected in these five dried products. And hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, benzene and heterocyclic compounds were the main components. Nonanal, decanal, 2,6,10-trimethyl-tetradecane and geranyl acetone were the main volatile substances in yam slices. The main volatile substances in yam slices processed by HAD, VD and MD were hydrocarbons, benzene and aldehydes, while the main volatile substances of VFD or VFD-HAD dired yam slices were hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones. The electronic nose detection showed that the aroma of yam slices was affected by drying methods. The aroma of yam slices processed by HAD and VD were similar in alcohol and some aromatic compounds. The aroma differences of yam slices between VFD and other drying methods were mainly nitrogen oxides and sulfur compounds. These were consistent with GC-MS analysis. On the basis of principal component analysis, the evaluation model of aroma quality was established. Considering the comprehensive score and aroma quality of yam slices, combined drying were the best drying method, followed by VFD, MD, HAD and VD.
    2024,24(1):315-327, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.031
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality difference between marinated eggs processed by different technologies. The basic nutrient content, pH, textures, microstructure, and water distribution status of four kinds of commercially available marinated eggs (WT Tangxin egg, WY and XY baked salted egg, and XW traditional marinated egg) were investigated. Moreover, the flavor analysis and sensory evaluation were determined. The results showed that the egg white protein content, egg yolk fat content (dry weight) and pH of the four kinds of marinated egg were between 64.48%-74.57%, 53.19%-60.55% and 6.53-7.13, respectively. The water content of WT Tangxin egg white and egg yolk was the highest (P < 0.05), which were 77.81% and 52.58%, respectively. Egg yolk hardness numbers of WT Tangxin egg and XW traditional marinated egg (530.43 g and 595.57 g) were significantly lower than two kinds of baked salted egg (P < 0.05), and the yolk particles were more compact. 67, 53, 29 and 25 flavor substances were detected in four marinated eggs respectively, and the main volatile components were phenols or pyrazines. The results of water distribution showed that the water fluidity of four kinds of marinated egg white and egg yolk were significantly different (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation by 72 appraisers showed that the total score of WT Tangxin egg was the highest (76.19 points) (P < 0.05), which was characterized by smooth egg white and delicate yolk. This study clarified the texture and flavor characteristics of marinated eggs with different processing technologies and provided theoretical support for the selection of appropriate processing technologies for marinated egg processing enterprises.
    2024,24(1):328-335, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.032
    Abstract:
    Orange characteristic aroma is one of the important aroma properties of orange wine. In order to study the formation and influence mechanism of orange characteristic aroma during the production of orange wine, the changing trend of orange characteristic aroma, its potent odorants and off-odorants during orange juice fermentation were analyzed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and forward silica gel chromatography combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that a total of 29 compounds were identified as the key aroma compounds in orange juice, which were mainly composed of fruity, orange-like, floral, green/grassy, and creamy aroma compounds. Among them, myrcene, heptanal, limonene γ-terpinene, decanol, octanal, octanol, citronellol and nerol were identified as the important contributor for orange characteristic aroma attribute. The orange-like aroma intensity increased significantly during fermentation for 1-4 days, and then decreased significantly, which were closely related to the contents of limonene γ-terpinene, octanol and nerol (P < 0.05). In addition, with the decrease of the content of orange characteristic aroma compounds, the content of isobutyric acid, butyric acid, 2-methyl butyric acid, valeric acid, caproic acid, heptanoic acid and caprylic acid with rancidity irritant odor increased significantly, which can significantly cover the orange characteristic aroma. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of citrus wine technology and aroma quality in the future.
    2024,24(1):336-348, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.033
    Abstract:
    In order to reveal the effect of stewing time on the flavor of Matsutake chicken soup, and to find the optimal stewing duration. Using fresh Matsutake from Yajiang was taken as a sample. Combined with molecular sensory techniques such as the technologies of electronic tongue(E-tongue) and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), the analytical methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to analyze the flavor characteristics of the braised chicken with matsutake shreds by adopting the computational formula of relative odor activity values (ROAV). The results of research have showed that the date analysis of electronic tongue indicates that fresh matsutakes has a significant effect on the taste of the chicken soup. The umami value has increased from 2.1 to between 4.9 and 8.0 for different stewed time period sand by E-tongue, there are 45 compounds detected by GC-IMS in total, the concentration of aldehydes decreased from 47.88% to 21.13%. The ROAV value (128.08) confirmed that 3-methyl-1-butanol is the key compound of chicken soup with matsutake mushrooms. Among them, M-cymene, 3-octanol, and n-octanol were the characteristic compounds of the matsutake chicken soup, which gave the matsutake chicken soup a distinctive gasoline flavor, mossy fresh aroma, nutty flavor, mushroom odor, and metallic odor. The characteristic flavor of matsutake in chicken soup was most obvious after 5 min of simmering for optimal consumption. The results of this study provide a reference for the study of the flavor characteristics of Yajiang matsutake chicken soup.
    2024,24(1):349-363, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.034
    Abstract:
    The quality and safety of food is an important aspect of human health, social stability and development. Ensuring food quality and safety is a complex and multifaceted issue that must consider all stages of food processing, from cultivation and harvesting to storage, transportation, and consumption. The application of machine learning to food processing can significantly improve the efficiency and ensure the quality and safety of food. This article systematically summarize machine learning and deep learning models, and elaborate on the application of machine learning in the field of food, such as image recognition, grading, quality inspection and food industry chain. It provides theoretical reference for the application of machine learning in food processing to expand the research ideas of food researchers.
    2024,24(1):364-378, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.035
    Abstract:
    Resistant starch (RS) refers to a group of complex carbohydrates that cannot be digested and absorbed by small intestine and can be further fermented in the large intestine of healthy individuals. Studies have shown that the consumption of RS confers a series of physiological functions and health benefits. There are many kinds of microorganisms in the intestinal tract, the degradation mechanism of resistant starch by the intestinal microorganisms has attracted increasing attention among researchers. The classification, structure, mechanism and physiological function of resistant starch were reviewed in this paper. The research advances in the interactions between resistant starch and the intestinal microorganisms were also reviewed. On the basis of the above-mentioned aspects, the degradation mechanism of resistant starch by two well-known primary degrading bacteria (including Ruminococcus bromii and Bifidobacterium) and the role of certain secondary microorganisms in degrading the RS were also discussed and reviewed in this paper. This study was expected to provide the theoretical guidance for the development of resistant starch with specific metabolic function as well as the rational selection of healthy food products with targeted functional design.
    2024,24(1):379-389, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.036
    Abstract:
    Exosomes are nanoscale (40-160 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that play a role in cell signal transduction, immune response and antigen presentation. They can be isolated from various body fluids, including serum, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and emulsion, etc. Milk-derived exosomes are endogenous delivery vehicles which contain a variety of functional molecules such as proteins and miRNA, many of which are related to human immune function. Milk-derived exosomes can be absorbed by human intestine and exert healthy effects through ingestion of milk. This article summarizes domestic and foreign reports on the relationship between milk-derived exosomes and microorganisms, as well as the research results of our team. In this article, the biogenesis process and main components of exosomes, the relationship between exosomes and pathogenic microbial infection, and the effects of milk-derived exosomes on intestinal microorganisms were expounded. It provides a reference for studying the nutritional and health effects of milk-derived exosomes on human body.
    2024,24(1):390-406, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.037
    Abstract:
    Phenolic compounds of pulses are diverse and affect the appearance, sensory characteristics and nutritional properties of pulses. The diversity of phenolic compounds is the focus of research on the nutritional properties of pulses. This paper summarises the factors influencing the diversity of phenolic compounds in pulses and finds that a reasonable extraction and analysis method is beneficial for the integrity of phenolic compound extraction and correct characterization. On this basis, this paper indicates that species and origin, growth and storage, and processing affect the synthesis, leaching and release of phenolic compounds from pulses, and contribute to the formation of phenolic compound diversity. Finally, the contribution and advantages of metabolomics techniques to the study of miscellaneous bean phenolic diversity and challenges are presented, with a view to providing theoretical references for research on the mechanisms of miscellaneous bean phenolic compound changes and processing, as well as breeding.
    2024,24(1):407-417, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.038
    Abstract:
    Microorganisms of aquatic products have a specific succession regularity during storage period. Specific spoilage bacteria occupying a quantitative advantage in the later stage of storage has strong spoilage potential, which exerts a significant role in the spoilage of aquatic products. Based on the overview of the microbial succession regularity during the storage of aquatic products, main types of specific spoilage bacteria, biofilm formation as well as spoilage mechanisms were introduced, and it was concluded that related functional genes expression and extracellular enzymes secretion were important factors for spoilage of dominant spoilage bacteria in aquatic products. In the view of myofibril proteins degradation, nucleotide-related product metabolism, and lipid oxidation, the spoilage pathway of specific spoilage bacteria was expounded. In particular, it is proposed that the internal regulation mechanism among coding gene expression, dominant spoilage bacteria and quality of aquatic products should be emphasized from molecular level combined with whole genome sequence level, especially the mixed dominant spoilage bacteria. At the same time, metabolomics technology can be used to construct metabolic pathways of dominant spoilage bacteria, and the interaction mechanisms among different metabolic pathways should also be focused on, aiming to providing theoretical reference for revealing the spoilage mechanism of aquatic products, targeting spoilage bacteria and adopting effective preservation strategies.
    2024,24(1):418-429, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.039
    Abstract:
    In order to solve the problems of low survival rate, low viable number and unsatisfied performance of free probiotic products in vivo, microencapsulation technologies have been widely studied and gradually applied to commercial products these years. This paper focuses on the functional evaluation of microencapsulated probiotic products in vitro and in vitro in recent years, covering the functional characteristics of microencapsulated probiotics such as survival, release, adhesion and antibacterial in vitro, and the functional characteristics of probiotics such as survival, adhesion, colonization, anti-diarrhea, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation and regulation of metabolic syndrome in vivo, and provides some suggestion for the further development of effective probiotic products for human beings.
    2024,24(1):430-442, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.040
    Abstract:
    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are Gram-positive bacteria which exist widely in nature. As the predominant microbial communities in many traditional fermented food, including fermented sausage, ham, cheese and fermented fish, CNS are considered as probiotics and play an effective role to enhance the aroma, texture as well as safety of fermented food. Although many CNS have been widely concerned as a food starter culture in food industry because of their good production characteristics, their potential safety hazards to food quality also aroused concerns from many scholars. This article summarized the positive contribution of CNS as a starter culture to improving the food quality, such as flavor and color. Meanwhile, the studies on their potential hazards during the application in food production were also full discussed. It might provide some reference for the research on CNS starter culture selection and safety evaluation.
    2024,24(1):443-454, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.041
    Abstract:
    Fermented foods possess a distinct taste and nutritional worth, encompassing a variety of bioactive compounds. Ultrasound technology is a non-thermal processing technique that has been proven to sterilize, enhance the production of active products, and modify the macromolecular properties of food. Presently, there needs to be more organized discourse regarding the utilization of ultrasound technology in processing fermented foods. This article provide a comprehensive summary of the scientific advancements about the impact of ultrasound technology on microorganisms and the quality of various fermented foods throughout fermentation and storage processes. The influence of ultrasound on fermented foods is contingent upon the specific ultrasound processing settings, inherent features of the fermented food, and the types of microorganisms present. Ultrasound treatment, under varying circumstances, can impede the proliferation of detrimental microbes, guaranteeing fermented foods' safety. Additionally, it can regulate the functioning of probiotic strains to enhance the nutritional quality of fermented foods. Ultrasound treatment has the potential to improve the speed of fermentation, regulate the fermentation process, minimize excessive fermentation, augment the concentration of bioactive compounds in fermented foods, and provide nutritional and health advantages. This article serves as a guide for utilizing ultrasonic technology in industrial manufacturing and improving traditional fermented foods.
    2024,24(1):455-465, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.042
    Abstract:
    A novel kind of lightweight material which called starch-based aerogel have a three-dimensional porous network with high porosity, large specific surface area, and low density. The preparation of starch aerogels is simple and clean. It is prepared by drying the hydrogels after starch gelatinization and regeneration. This paper focuses on the main factors affecting aerogel properties, such as starch source, starch concentration, gelatinization temperature, regeneration conditions and different drying methods. In addition, the modification of starch aerogel such as cross-linking treatment, compound modification, surface coating, and the applications of modified starch-based aerogels was summarized. At present, the research on the application of starch aerogel mainly focuses on food nutrition and biomedicine. Furthermore, starch aerogel has certain application potential in thermal insulation materials, environmental pollution treatment and other fields. This paper is instructive for constructing of high-quality starch aerogels and expanding their practical applications.
    2024,24(1):466-474, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.043
    Abstract:
    In recent years, using non degradable plastic as food packaging material has been resulted in serious environmental pollution. Thus, it is urgent to develop and use degradable food packaging materials. Bio-based nanocomposite is a kind of composite material, which is composed of bio-based polymers as matrix and nano materials as dispersed phase. This kind of material exhibits superior flexibility, biocompatibility biodegradability and low cost-effectiveness. This paper mainly introduces the composition, classification, and properties of bio-based nanocomposites, and summarizes the advantages in antimicrobial property of this kind of nanocomposite and its research progress in the field of food.
    2024,24(1):475-486, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.044
    Abstract:
    Pickering emulsions has a history of more than 100 years, which mainly have applied on lipid substitutes, baked foods, nutrient delivery and detergents. Many scholars at home and abroad have conducted studies on the production greatly and related mechanism of PEs that made great achievements. However, there is no clear principle for the classification and selection of raw materials. The research was carried out solely according to the needs of the research and the characteristics of the emulsions, which lacked systematic analyze and limited the selection range of materials of complex emulsions. This paper firstly introduced the relationship between different process mechanism of PEs (included physical barrier theory, network structure theory, bridging theory and capillary forces theory). Based on these mechanism, then it introduced PEs which stable by solid particles in different type of materials (included polysaccharides, protein, polyphenols and lipids particles). Finally in order to provide certain thought for researchers, it analyzed all information about the raw materials selection, preparation methods of PEs and food-grade solid particles according to the two part that has introduced.
    2024,24(1):487-496, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2024.01.045
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study is to objectively reflect the problems in the food and health food industry by analyzing the typical cases of health food and related food in the special action of China's food industry and put forward corresponding regulatory policy suggestions. Excel 2016 software was used to make a statistical description of the overall situation, geographical distribution, sales mode, target population, amount involved, and case type of the case, and a word frequency graph was used to visually describe the product function claims in typical cases. It was found that the typical cases of health food and related food involved 25 provinces (cities and districts), with wide geographical distribution, among which Zhejiang, Sichuan, and Shanghai were the most cases. Sales methods mainly include wholesale and retail, online sales, and conference marketing. The elderly group is the main victim group in typical cases of health food and related food. In typical cases, the amount involved is large, and the problem of false publicity of ordinary food posing as health food or medicine is serious, in addition, there are also problems such as false publicity of health food and irregular online sales. Given the problems existing in health food and related food, the following regulatory policy suggestions are put forward: 1) Strengthen the supervision of product function claims, and improve the food claim management system. 2) Improve each subject's cognition of product positioning and clarify product attributes and functions. 3) Rectify false propaganda and strengthen the supervision of online sales platforms.
    Article Search
    Search by issue
    Select AllDeselectExport
    Display Method:
    2022,22(2):357-368, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.038
    [Abstract] (496) [HTML] (574) [PDF 1.23 M] (1193)
    Abstract:
    Flavonoids are a kind of polyphenolic compounds with 2-phenyl flavone structure, which are widely found in fruits, vegetables and tea leaves, and have the functions of anti-oxidation, reducing blood lipids, regulating blood glucose and inhibiting inflammation. Numerous studies have corroborated that the metabolic absorption and physiological function of flavonoids in vivo are closely related to gut microbiota. In this paper, we elucidated the interaction between flavonoids and gut microbiota from the structure and function of gut microbiota, types and products of microorganisms involved in metabolism, types and activities of metabolic enzymes and other aspects, summarized the mechanism of flavonoids in preventing obesity, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease by regulating gut microbiota, so as to provide theoretical basis for the application of flavonoids in functional foods.
    2022,22(2):1-10, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.001
    [Abstract] (740) [HTML] (643) [PDF 2.72 M] (924)
    Abstract:
    Jug r 2 is the major allergen of walnut. And the linear epitopes on Jug r 2 is a key factor in triggering a severe allergic reaction. Hence, the research on the efficient strategy for analyzing the linear epitopes of Jug r 2 is necessary. In our study, two immunoinformatic tools including DNAStar Protean and ABCpred were used to predict the B cells linear epitopes on Jug r 2. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and HPLC-MS/MS were used to identify anti-digestion peptides. And anti-digestion peptides were located on the 3D model of Jug r 2. The results showed that eight predicted B cells linear epitopes were AA186-199, AA226-230, AA257-263, AA284-289, AA373-382, AA389-398, AA408-414, AA472-487; eleven anti-digestion peptides were AA215~220, AA250~260, AA323~337, AA351~356, AA363~388, AA428~438, AA470~483, AA488~513, AA514~526, AA527~541, AA545~572. Of all anti-digestion peptides, four coincided with the predicted or true B cells linear epitope sequences and eight coincided with true T cells epitopes sequences. Anti-digestion peptides showed good antigenic properties in hydrophilic and flexible on the localization of Jug r 2 3D structure. Therefore, the anti-digestion property of food allergens may be a promising direction for studying linear epitopes of Jug r 2.
    2022,22(1):1-11, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.001
    [Abstract] (779) [HTML] (612) [PDF 2.61 M] (903)
    Abstract:
    Food is a kind of multiphase and multicomponent complex system,and its component structure directly determines its quality function.With the in-depth understanding of the multi-scale structure changes of characteristic components in food processing and the in-depth intersection and integration of physics,chemistry,biology and material science,the multi-scale structure changes and quality function regulation of food also present a new direction and trend.In this paper,the basic concept,connotation and denotation of multi-scale structure of food were firstly proposed,and the research status and latest progress of multi-scale structure change and quality function of food were summarized,aiming to enrich the basic theoretical system of food structure-activity relationship and provide theoretical basis and technical approach for precise control of quality function in food processing.
    2022,22(2):49-57, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.006
    [Abstract] (440) [HTML] (587) [PDF 1.15 M] (883)
    Abstract:
    Soybean peptides (SOPs) are functional ingredients with good health benefits. The health benefits presented are highly dependent on the peptide structures. SOPs were prepared from soybean protein isolate by hydrolysis. Ultraviolet full wavelength scanning method and circular dichroism spectrophotometry were used to analyze whether the structure of SOPs was affected by pepsin, trypsin and the sequential treatment of pepsin and trypsin. ABTS free radical scavenging ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power(FRAP) of SOPs were measured in order to explore the changes of antioxidant capacity of SOPs before and after digestion. The results showed that SOPs were mainly composed of components with molecular weight less than 1 000 u, and the proportion of components less than 1 000 u increased after digestion, and the maximum proportion reached 88.46%. They all had maximum absorption peaks at 275 nm. In the secondary structure, the proportion of random curl in the four groups of SOPs was about 30%, accounting for about 1/3 of the total secondary structure composition, indicating high disorder and loose and open structure of SOPs. The ABTS free radical scavenging ability and iron reducing ability of SOPs were stable. After trypsin digestion, DPPH radical scavenging rate decreased and oxygen radical absorption capacity increased significantly (P < 0.01).
    2022,22(1):12-20, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.002
    [Abstract] (347) [HTML] (598) [PDF 1.42 M] (873)
    Abstract:
    In this study,the trans-well co-culture system of Caco-2 monolayer cells and HaCaT cells was established,and the effects of resveratrol,kaempferol,punicalagin,fisetin and oenothein B on SIRT3 expression were evaluated by the SIRT3-EGFP reporter gene system in HaCaT cells,as well as the protective effect of the selected SIRT3-augmenting polyphenols on UVB-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT cells were further investigated.The result showed that resveratrol,kaempferol and oenothein B significantly enhanced the expression of exogenous and endogenous SIRT3 gene;among them,oenothein B significantly reduced the level of ROS in HaCaT cells;however,knockdown SIRT3 expression significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of oenothein B on UVB-induced oxidative stress.In conclusion,the inhibition effect of oenothein B on UVB-induced ROS generation depends on SIRT3 in the co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and HaCaT cells.
    2022,22(1):67-77, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.008
    [Abstract] (317) [HTML] (570) [PDF 1.56 M] (849)
    Abstract:
    In this study,with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as control strain,probiotic probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum BF_15,isolated from breast milk infant,was used as the research object to evaluate its antioxidant activity in vitro,safety and alleviation of the DSS-induced oxidative damage in the colon of mice.The results show that the test strain Lactobacillus plantarum BF_15 could tolerate high concentrations of H2O2 (3.5 mmol/L).In the fermentation supernatant,the scavenging ability of strain BF_15 on DPPH was lower than that of the control strain LGG (P<0.01);the scavenging ability of oOH was higher than LGG (P<0.05);the scavenging ability of ·O2- was higher than LGG (P>0.05);anti-lipid peroxidation ability was lower than LGG (P<0.01).In the bacterial suspension,the scavenging ability of strain BF_15 on DPPH and ·O2- was higher than that of the control strain LGG (P>0.05);the scavenging ability on ·OH was higher than LGG (P<0.01);the anti-lipid peroxidation ability was lower than LGG (P<0.01).Meanwhile,Neither the test strain BF_15 nor the control strain LGG produced harmful metabolites (bioamine,nitrite,indole),and had hemolytic properties.In animal experiments,the strain BF_15 could reduce the degree of intestinal mucosal damage and inflammatory cell infiltration,increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.01),and reduce the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.01) through early intragastric administration,which effectively alleviated the symptoms of DSS-induced oxidative damage in the colon of mice;its effect was equivalent to that of the control strain LGG (P>0.05).This study provided a scientific basis for the development and application of probiotics derived from human breast milk infants and their early intervention to relieve intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis(UC).This study laid a solid foundation for probiotics in the prevention of intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis (UC),and provided a reference guide for oxidative stress as a new therapeutic target.
    2022,22(2):11-22, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.002
    [Abstract] (226) [HTML] (581) [PDF 2.34 M] (849)
    Abstract:
    In this study, the pre-treated whey protein by ultrasound was used as the substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. OPA and ELISA method were used to analyze the optimal conditions of ultrasonic pretreatment - enzymatic hydrolysis for whey protein by the crude enzyme of Kluyveromyces marxianus Z17, in order to reduce the antigenicity of whey protein (characterized by the antigenicity of α-LA and β-LG). The results showed that the hydrolysis degree of whey protein was significantly affected by initial pH value and hydrolysis temperature, and the antigenicity of α-LA and β-LG was apparently influenced by initial pH value, and the interaction of ultrasonic interval time and ultrasonic power also played a role in affecting the antigenicity of α-LA and β-LG. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis to transform whey protein by Kluyveromyces marxianus Z17 were obtained by response surface method: the reduction rates of α-LA antigenicity and β-LG antigenicity were predicted to reach the maximum at the ultrasonic interval time of 16 s, the ultrasonic power of 400 W, the initial pH of 6.16 and the enzymatic hydrolysis temperature of 18.48 ℃, which were 65.56% and 57.96%, respectively.
    2022,22(1):21-30, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.003
    [Abstract] (570) [HTML] (562) [PDF 1.36 M] (846)
    Abstract:
    Objective:Lactobacillus plantarum RX-8 was isolated from Chinese traditional pickles and shown to produce plantaricin EF,a genetically characterized inducible class IIb bacteriocin.It has broad spectrum antibacterial ability,good processing application characteristics and great potential application as a natural food biological preservative.However,plantaricin EF encounter various limits both in industrial fermentation and application because of its low synthesis.This work aimed at showing the effect of exogenous microorganisms act as an environmental stimulus activating plantaricin EF production by Lactobacillus plantarum RX-8.Method:Based on the existing conventional pure culture conditions and the main influencing factors of bacteriocin production by strain RX-8,two pure culture model systems with low and no bacteriocin production were established.Aliquots of the 16 strains from different fermented food sources were added to fresh MRS broth containing Ca.108 CFU/mL of an overnight culture of Lactobacillus plantarum RX-8.By comparing the bacteriocin antibacterial activity in co-culture and pure culture,the best co-culture induced strains and their conditions were screened and determined.To study the specific types of induction,the inducing activity of different treatments with living-cells and supernatants were tested.Results:When Bacillus subtilis BS-15 from grain vinegar was co-cultured with the strain RX-8,it showed significant induction ability (P<0.01).The best bacteriocin production was induced by co-cultivation as follows:the optimal inoculation ratio of Bacillus subtilis BS-15 and Lactobacillus plantarum RX-8 was 10:1,and the inoculation concentration was 108 CFU/mL and 107 CFU/mL respectively.It was speculated that the induction was caused by the protein substances secreted by Bacillus subtilis BS-15.Conclusion:Taken together,the results suggest that the presence of specific microorganisms act as environmental stimulus activating plantaricin EF production.Microbial co-cultivation can be used as an important technical means to increase the production of lactic acid bacteria.
    2022,22(9):239-247, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.09.025
    [Abstract] (455) [HTML] (306) [PDF 1.15 M] (828)
    Abstract:
    A method for the determination of perchlorate and chlorate in bovin milk and infant formula by high performance anion exchange chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. It was optimized about the protein precipitation reagent and the purification conditions of infant formula. The protein was precipitated by acetonitrile and the supernatant was purified by ion chromatographic pretreatment column. The separation was performed on a Dionex IonPac AS19 high performance anion column with gradient elution using potassium hydroxide eluent at the flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The injection volume was 50 μL. The column temperature was 30 ℃. The results showed that the perchlorate and chlorate could be separated well under the experimental conditions and showed a good linear relationship with its corresponding quantitative ion peak area in a wide concentration range (R2>0.999). The limits of detection for perchlorate and chlorate were 7 ng/L and 1.7 ng/L, respectively, and the limits of quantification were 20 ng/L and 5 ng/L. The recoveries of milk and infant formula were 88.95%~102.33%, and the RSDs were 1.86%~3.21%. This method has the advantages of simple sample processing, low limit of detection, low limit of quantification, good stability, good repeatability and recovery, and could be widely used in the detection of milk and infant powder.
    2022,22(1):198-205, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.022
    [Abstract] (379) [HTML] (521) [PDF 1.03 M] (799)
    Abstract:
    Brassica chinensis L.is a typical green leafy vegetable which is easy to senesce and yellow after harvest.The effects of different concentrations of melatonin (MT) (0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8 mmol/L) on the storage quality of Brassica chinensis L.were studied.The results showed that MT treatment could effectively delay the senescence,keep the good color,delay the increase of weight loss rate and yellowing rate,and keep the higher contents of chlorophyll,vitamin C,soluble solids and reduce sugar.In addition,MT treatment also significantly increased the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.Among the four different melatonin concentrations,0.6 mmol/L melatonin was the most suitable for the storage and preservation of Brassica chinensis L.The results provided theoretical basis and technical support for the storage and preservation of Brassica chinensis L.
    2022,22(2):23-30, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.003
    [Abstract] (283) [HTML] (578) [PDF 1.47 M] (794)
    Abstract:
    Pectin is a polysaccharide that widely exists in plant cell walls and has a variety of physiologically active functions. Various studies have confirmed that modification of polysaccharide can improve its biological activity. Therefore, in this study, the citrus segment membrane pectin (PP) and its degraded oligosaccharides (POS1 and POS2) recovered from the citrus canning waste water were carried out sulfate esterification in order to increase their activity. Molecular weight and monosaccharide composition analysis showed that after sulfating by TBA and DMSO systems, the molecular weight of sulfated pectin polysaccharides and oligosaccharides were decreased, and the content of arabinose and galactose reduced significantly. FTIR and NMR results shown that the H4 of each component of galacturonic acid showed a low-field shift after sulfation. And the anomer hydrogen signals of galactose and arabinose from POS1 and POS2 shifted to the low field, respectively. Which indicating that the main chain and the side chain were sulfated. The in vitro results showed that the anti-tumor activity of sulfated POS1 and POS2 was further enhanced. Among them, POS1-T has the best effect, with an inhibition rate of 30.25%. In summary, the results of the study indicated that sulfation could increase the antitumor effect of pectin polysaccharide and its oligosaccharides.
    2022,22(2):77-87, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.009
    [Abstract] (123) [HTML] (504) [PDF 2.00 M] (784)
    Abstract:
    In order to clarify the state and distribution of water in non-fermented frozen dough at different mixing times and during freezing storage, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to determine the moisture state of dough and after freezing during the dough mixing process by farinograph. The results showed that: In the dough mixing process, the proportion of strongly bound water (A21) in the dough just after leaving 500 BU was the highest and the proportion of weakly bound water(A22) was the highest. At this time, the water binding state was the best, and the gluten was fully hydrated. Ice crystal pores with irregular shapes and uneven distribution appeared inside the dough with different stirring times after freezing. However, the A21 value of the dough that had just left 500 BU was still the highest after freezing, the number of internal ice crystal pores was small, and the area of ice crystal pores was small. The moisture binding state was better. Conclusion: The moisture binding state of the dough that just left 500 BU from the farinograph kneading process was the best, the gluten network structure was fully formed, and the mobility of internal water molecules was the lowest. After frozen storage, the moisture binding state of the dough that had just left 500 BU was still good, and the internal water molecules were relatively stable.
    2022,22(1):78-87, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.009
    [Abstract] (332) [HTML] (553) [PDF 2.01 M] (741)
    Abstract:
    Purpose:To explore the effect of camel milk on the diversity and structure of intestinal microflora in mice with chronic alcoholic liver injury.In this experiment,male C57BL/6NCr mice were randomly divided into 4 groups:control group (Con,n=6),model group (Et,n=6),camel milk dose group (EtCM,n=6) and cow milk dose group (EtNM,n=6);the experiment was conducted for 8 weeks,the first 4 weeks were fed with Lieber-DeCarli liquid feed (including control),and the following 4 weeks were fed with corresponding milk or saline on the basis of feeding Lieber-DeCarli liquid feed.After the gavage,the NIAAA model was established by gavage 31.5% alcohol solution at a dose of 5 g/kg.Serum LPS content was detected,and colonic feces of mice were collected under sterile conditions for 16S rRNA sequencing,and intestinal flora alpha diversity,beta diversity,and species structure based on genus and genus levels were analyzed.Serum index results showed that serum LPS of mice in EtCM group and EtNM group was significantly reduced (P < 0.01).16S rRNA sequencing results showed that camel milk and cow milk significantly increased the abundance and uniformity of the colonic intestinal flora of ALD mice,and better adjusted the structure of intestinal flora;among them,camel milk showed better alpha diversity than cow milk.At the phylum level,camel milk and cow milk significantly increased the abundance of Bacteroides phylum and decreased the abundance of thick-walled phylum.At the genus level,camel milk and cow milk significantly increased the abundance of Bacteroides,Bacteroides,and Ackermania,and reduced the abundance of the unknown genus Ruminococcaceae_UCG-013 under the Rumenaceae family.Among them,the beneficial bacteria abundance of camel milk is 9% higher than that of cow milk.Conclusion:Camel milk can adjust the intestinal flora structure by changing the intestinal flora environment of ALD mice.It shows that camel milk can be used as a functional dairy product to regulate intestinal flora,and can prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction caused by chronic ALD.
    2022,22(1):49-57, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.006
    [Abstract] (452) [HTML] (539) [PDF 1.07 M] (723)
    Abstract:
    This study aims to explore the potential utilization of sweet orange peels.In this paper,flavonoid compounds in the peels of blood orange,navel orange,egyptian orange,and sunkist orange were extracted,and the contents of 11 flavonoid compounds were analyzed by HPLC.Then the bioactive functions in four sweet orange peels were investigated in vitro.The results manifested that there were abundant flavanone compounds in the sweet orange peels,such as eriocitrin,narirutin,and hesperidin,and the contents of polymethoxyflavonoids were less than that of flavanone compounds.The comprehensive APC index of flavonoids in sweet orange peels ranged from 86.20% to 99.47%.The inhibitory ratio of α-glucosidase varying from 46.16% to 70.18%.Moreover,the bile acid salt binding experiment indicated that sweet orange peels flavonoids could bind bile acid sodium,sodium taurocholate,and sodium glycocholate.The adsorption capacity was within the range of 0.359 to 0.460 μmol/mg.Pearson correlation analysis showed positive correlations between the biological activity and the total content of 11 flavonoids.This study provided theoretical support for the development of antioxidative,hypoglycemic,and lipid-lowering functional products using sweet orange peels.
    2022,22(2):31-39, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.004
    [Abstract] (348) [HTML] (577) [PDF 1.54 M] (714)
    Abstract:
    The stability in different temperature and pH value of soluble dietary fiber-polyphenol complexes and their functions on lipids, cholesterol, cholesterol decreases, adsorption capacity and cation exchange capacity of bile salts, also the potential lipid-lowering activity in vitro experiments were explored, which aimed at providing a reference for the preparation of functional foods with lipid-lowering function. The datas showed that the stability of the compound decreased with the increase of temperature and pH value. The adsorption capacity of soluble dietary fiber-polyphenol complex to oil was better than that of soluble dietary fiber and physical mixture, whose results were significantal (P<0.01) different and the adsorption of lard and peanut oil showed the same trendency. The adsorption effect of the complex on cholesterol was significantly better than that of soluble dietary fiber (P<0.05) the simulated environment solution (pH 7.0) and the adsorption capacity of the complex on cholesterol in the simulated intestinal environment (pH=7.0) was significantly higher in a simulated stomach environment (pH=2.0). In addition, the interaction between soluble dietary fiber and polyphenols significantly promoted the adsorption effect of soluble dietary fiber on cholate (P<0.01) and improved the cation exchange capacity of soluble dietary fiber.
    2022,22(2):88-97, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.02.010
    [Abstract] (206) [HTML] (529) [PDF 1.37 M] (714)
    Abstract:
    The effects of mass concentration, temperature, inorganic cation type and pH on the fluid and gelation properties of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale(DOP) were evaluated by rheological analysis and FT-IR analysis in this study. The results showed that the DOP aqueous solution exhibited shear-thinning flow behavior under different concentration, temperature, inorganic cation type and solution pH. The viscosity of DOP solution increased with its increasing concentration and the pseudoplastic was more obvious. The viscosity of DOP solution decreased with the increasing of temperature in the range of 5~75 ℃. The addition of Na+ significantly increased the viscosity of DOP solution. However, the viscosity of DOP solution was decreased when K+, Ca2+, Al3+ were added respectively and the change trend was related to the inorganic cation concentration and valence. DOP extracted with hot water had good stability under acidic conditions. However, the viscosity of DOP solution significantly increased under alkaline conditions and the gelation of solution will be occurred under alkaline conditions (pH>10.0). The dynamic rheological results showed that the gel transition was enhanced with the increasing of polysaccharide mass concentration. The FT-IR results indicated that the gelation was related to the absorption peaks at 1 735 cm-1, 2 935 cm-1 and 2 881 cm-1. The above results suggested that the aqueous solution of DOP had unique fluid and gelation properties for processing. The results are useful for the formulation and processing of polysaccharide extracted from Dendrobium officinale.
    2022,22(1):116-124, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.013
    [Abstract] (152) [HTML] (560) [PDF 1.35 M] (712)
    Abstract:
    In the process of cider fermentation,Saccharomyces cerevisiae will make metabolic responses to various stresses and environmental changes.Chlorogenic acid is a relatively high content of apple polyphenols in apples and cider.This study selected chlorogenic acid as a representative apple polyphenol to investigate the effects of different concentrations on the physiological characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The results showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae CICC 31084 improved the resistance to stress by changing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and the content of intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) under the stress of chlorogenic acid.Among them,SOD activity gradually increased with the increase of chlorogenic acid's concentration.The stress of low concentration of chlorogenic acid(0.01 g/L)promoted the increase of CAT activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The content of MDA was reduced in the early fermentation stage,and increased in the late fermentation stage under the stress of chlorogenic acid.With the extension of the fermentation time,the concentration of key aroma substances in cider gradually increased,which reached the maximum in the middle of fermentation,and then gradually decreased and stabilized.Correlation analysis showed that the concentration of key aroma substances,such as phenylethyl alcohol,phenylethyl acetate,isoamyl acetate,and ethyl caprate were positively correlated with the concentration of chlorogenic acid,the correlation coefficients respectively were 0.133,0.253,0.026,0.114;ethyl caprylate and ethyl caproate were negatively correlated with the concentration of chlorogenic acid,the correlation coefficients were -0.012 and -0.248.
    2022,22(1):364-375, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.040
    [Abstract] (278) [HTML] (530) [PDF 1.59 M] (686)
    Abstract:
    The development of biodegradable materials as the substitute of plastics has been widely studied recent years due to the problem of plastic pollution.Starch,a common natural polysaccharide,has been considered as an ideal source of biodegradable materials because of its with low price and wide source.This paper reviewed the most advanced research progress of starch-based biodegradable materials,including the additives,preparation and characterization methods of starch-based biodegradable materials,as well as their applications in food industry.Finally,this article provides the perspectives on current challenges and share our outlook of starch-based biodegradable materials to provide reference and guidance for the future studies in this area.
    2022,22(1):31-38, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.01.004
    [Abstract] (409) [HTML] (532) [PDF 1.23 M] (685)
    Abstract:
    Ochratoxin A(OTA) is a fungal toxin widely distribute in food.Reducing or eliminating OTA in food and its raw materials is of great significance in improving food quality and ensuring national food safety.Previously,the amide hydrolase AF-OTd (Alcaligenes faecalis OTA degrading enzyme),which can degrade OTA,was identified from Alcaligenes faecalis in the laboratory.In this study,the protein AF-OTd was highly expressed through gene recombination,and the enzymatic properties of the purified AF-OTd protein were analyzed.The results showed that the degradation rate of the purified AF-OTd enzyme for OTA was over 90%,and the degradation activity was affected by temperature,pH,alcohol and metal ions.The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50 ℃ and 7.5,respectively.Increase of alcohol content lead to a decrease of enzyme activity.When the alcohol content increased to 8%,the remaining enzyme activity was almost zero.1 mmol/L of metal ions Ca2+,CO2+,Cu2+,Mg2+,Mn2+,Zn2+,K+ and EDTA have different degrees of inhibition on the enzyme.At the same time,it was also found in this study that trace amounts of CO2+ and Zn2+ could significantly promote the activity of AF-OTd.
    2022,22(10):116-125, DOI: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2022.10.013
    [Abstract] (173) [HTML] (307) [PDF 1.91 M] (681)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To extract shrimp peptides from the by-products of red shrimp, and study its activity in promoting the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells. Methods: Firstly, the MTT method was used to detect the effect of different concentrations of shrimp peptides on the survival rate of MC3T3-E1 cells. After the concentration was selected, the osteoblasts were induced to differentiate and culture, and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured at 3 and 7 days of culture. Measure the content of osteocalcin (OCN) and type I collagen (COL-I) at 7 d and 14 d. Alizarin red staining is used to detect the degree of mineralization of cells induced and cultured at 21 d. QPCR and Western blot are used to study the expression of key genes and the proteins OPG, RANKL and RUNX2 in bone formation in the OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathway. Results: Shrimp peptide mass concentrations of 0.02, 0.05 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL significantly promoted cell proliferation, ALP activity, OCN and COL-I content increased compared to the control group, and the area of mineralized nodules increased significantly (P < 0.05). Shrimp peptide up-regulates the expression of ALP, OCN, and COL-I genes, promotes the expression of OPG and RUNX2 genes and protein levels, and inhibits the expression of RANKL genes and protein levels. Conclusion: Shrimp peptide can promote the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, and activate the OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathway to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.

Page View

Total visits :

Visit today :

Copyright :Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology     京ICP备09084417号-4
Address :9/F, No. 8 North 3rd Street, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China      Postal code :100048
Telephone :010-65223596 65265376      E-mail :chinaspxb@vip.163.com
Supported by : Beijing E-Tiller Technology Development Co., Ltd.